WILLIAM HEAP    Book Number: 89284    Product format: Paperback

In 1562, the wars of religion broke out in France between the opposing Protestants known as Huguenots and Catholics. The Huguenots were headed by Louis de Bourbon, against the Catholics under Francois de Lorraine, duc de Guise. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's 95 theses and Lutheranism had spread throughout France, and French was replacing Latin as the lingua franca. There were no fewer than eight wars in France between 1562 and 1598. The young Queen of England, who had acceded in 1558, intervened in these wars - a double-edged sword, both benevolent and exploitative. How and what were the consequences? How was the 'natural' enemy to become an ally, and how were relations between Elizabeth and three French kings - Charles IX, Henri III the last of Valois and Henri IV the first of the Bourbon dynasty - frequently at the heart of grand strategy. England became the 'arsenal' of first Huguenot then Royalist France. The book examines for the first time the scale of provision of war matériel, the role of economic and monetary questions, and how England effectively kick-started and perpetuated the wars. For many, military intervention was necessary as a way of protecting the continuation of English trade with Europe. English intervention began in Normandy in 1562 and ended in Picardy in 1597 and witnessed the sending of five English armies to France. This led to the creation of a defensive alliance in the Treaty of Blois of 1572 against an increasingly hostile Spain. Meanwhile Elizabeth duplicitously continued to support the Huguenots and the armies of German mercenaries in the French civil wars of the late 1560s to 1580s. The final period saw her supporting Henri IV to eject the Spanish from his country which conveniently became a method of keeping the war with Spain from English shores. Emphasis is placed on military history, focussing on the involvement of English armies at Le Havre (1562-63), Rouen (1591), Crozon (1594) and Amiens (1597). Research reveals the strategy and tactics of Henri IV allowing a re-evaluation of this military leader. Aspects of operations, life abroad, pays and supplies, leisure, casualties and prisoners, the ambulant embassy, the question of debts, the returning men and more. With a note on the language, currency and appendices. 336pp in large softback, 17.8 x 22.8cm. Richly illustrated with full page colour portraits and many other images, maps and charts for example of English arms exports of artillery, armour, gunpowder and ammunition.
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ISBN 9781912690497
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